Free Coffee Encyclopedia Brought to you by Bars Cigars and Coffee Brew
1aaa: highest quality of coffee beans identified and described stating size, quality, density, and moisture content.
A: largest size grade in India, a grade coffee, generally a size grade of arabica coffee beans along with A, B, & C.
AA: largest size grade in Kenya, Tanzania, and New Guinea, a grade of coffee generally a size grade of arabica coffee beans along with A, B, & C.
Acidity: The sensation of dryness that the coffee produces under the edges of your tongue and on the back of your palate. The role acidity plays in coffee in not unlike its role as related to the flavor of wine. It provides a sharp, bright, vibrant quality. With out sufficient acidity the coffee will tend to taste flat. Acidity should not be confused with sour, which is an unpleasant, negative flavor characteristic.
Affogato: meaning ‘drowned’. A shot of espresso poured over a scoop of vanilla ice cream in a latte glass.
Africa & the Arabian Peninsula: Coffees from this growing region are the most distinctive in the world, characterized by dry, winy acidity, chocolate and fruit undertones, rustic flavors and intense aromas. Ethiopia is the native land of coffee, and it was in the Yemen that coffee was first cultivated and prepared.
Aroma: The wonderful smell of freshly roasted and ground coffee. The acidity will help you sense this aroma. In addition to the many state parks, Maine is also home to.
Afloat: The coffee is in route on a ship.
Aged Coffee: Coffee held in warehouse for several years in order to reduce acidity and increased body. Aged coffee is held longer than an old crop, or mature coffee.
Altura: In Spanish means heights and describes Mexican coffee that has been grown high or mountain grown.
American Roast: See cinnamon roast. Medium brown.
Arabica: Coffee Arabica, the most common cultivated species of coffee in the modern market. A variety of coffee (Coffee Arabica) first found in the Yemen/Ethiopia, known as the only real coffee. Over 70% of the world’s coffee is Arabica. They are grown in cool tropical climates, lost of rich, moist soil. Arabica are more susceptible to damage from pests, cold and bad handling. The beans are of a more consistent shape and less bitter than robusta coffee with half the amount of caffeine.
Aroma: Aroma is a sensation, which is difficult to separate from flavor. The aroma contributed to the flavors we discern on our palates.
Arroba: A term for weight in Central and South America. Generally, 12.5 kilos or 27.5 pounds.
Automatic Drip: coffee brewers that automatically heat and filter water the coffee.
Babycino: Cold milk in a demitasse cup topped with froth and dusted with chocolate powder.
Balance: A tasting term applied to coffee or wine means no single taste characteristic overwhelms others
Bag: Usually a burlap sack of coffee. In various countries it is a different weight.
Bale: Another term for bag. About 176 pounds but changes depending on who is using the term.
Batch Roaster: A machine, which roasts a given quantity at one time. In effect, it is a roasted that does not continually roasts beans. There is an identifiable start and end time to the roasters capabilities.
Barista: A person who makes coffee as a profession.
Benefico: A Spanish term for establishments that have cleaning, washing, drying, and sorting machines.
Bitter: Bitterness is a harsh unpleasant taste detected towards the back of the tongue. Most of the time this would mean a bad coffee unless it was a very dark roast where the bitterness is intentional. Can be caused by a number of factors including burnt coffee or milk, incorrect grind, defective beans and over-roasted beans.
Black Beans: Dead coffee which fell off the tree.
Black Jack Coffee: Coffee beans that turned bad after picking or during shipping.
Bland: A pale flavor perceived on the upper sides of the tongue caused by sugars reacting with salts to reduce saltiness. Commonly found in low grown robusta beans and coffee that has been under extracted.
Blend: A mix of tow or more coffee beans.
Body: Body is the feeling coffee has in your mouth.
Bodum: A trade name associated with a specific brand of cafetiere/plunger.
Bourbon: Coffee beans, which come from plants, which have not been altered originating from the Isle or Bourbon.
Bouquet: The fragrance and aftertaste of brewed coffee.
Breve: A cappuccino made with light cream.
Brazil: Brazil grows approximately 35% of the world’s coffee, but only Santos is considered important by the specialty coffee industry. Another coffee, Rio, is also well known for its medicinal taste, and is often used in New Orleans coffee with the addition of chicory. Bourbon Santos is Brazil’s finest grade of coffee, and the beans form the arabica trees that produce this coffee are small and curly for the first three or four years of production. During this time, the coffee is called Bourbon Santos. As the trees age, the beans become larger and lose quality. They are referred to as flat bean Santos. Bandeirante is a popular estate grown Brazilian coffee that is often found in the United States. Brazilian coffee is generally produced using the dry-process. Coffee is the world’s most popular beverage after water, with over 400 billion cups consumed annually. The coffee bean comes from an evergreen tree grown in a narrow subtropical belt around the world.
Bright: often used to describe the good pleasant acidity of the coffee, the bright taste left in your mouth.
Briny: A salty sensation associated with coffee that has been over roasted or brewed too hot.
Bullhead: An extra large coffee bean. Sometimes a pea berry, which has not totally grown together.
Bundles: Another term for bale.
Brisures: Broken and separated by screening.
Broken: Cracked coffee beans.
Brokers: Generally anyone paid a commission involved in a trade.
Buttery: A full flavor and oily ‘mouth feel’
CC, C/C: Current Crop.
C& f: Cost of the coffee bean and freight
Caracol: Another word for pea berry; a large single round coffee bean.
Caturra: A recently developed sub variety of the Coffea Arabica, which is better disease resistant.
CIF: Cost of the coffee bean, insurance, and freight.
Café benefaciado: Hulled coffee.
Coffee bonifieur: Thoroughly cleaned and polished coffee beans.
Café em casca: Coffee in parchment.
Café em ceraja: Coffee in the red cherry.
Café em coco: Coffee in the dried pod.
Café en parche: Coffee in the parchment.
Café habitant: Coffee, which has not been polished
Café de panno: Coffee picked in the cloth. Coffee picked very carefully where a cloth is placed on the ground so no dirt gets in accidentally if the bean falls.
Café despolpado: Washed coffee or pulped coffee is the process.
Café Latte: One shot espresso, topped with hot milk, topped with 1 cm creamy layer of micro foam served in a latte glass.
Café Mocha: Shot of chocolate syrup, shot of espresso, topped with steamed milk and a layer of whipped cream and sprinkled with chocolate.
Café rebeneficiado: Coffee re-separated or improved.
Café terrier: Coffee washed and dried in coco.
Cafetal: A plantation of coffee trees.
Café ate: Coffee with milk.
Cafetiere: A glass jug of medium ground coffee, which is steeped in just off the boil water. A plunger filter is pressed down to the bottom to separate the grounds from the coffee.
Caffeine: Naturally occurring in coffee, an odorless, white, alkaloid, this stimulates the central nervous system and can cause adrenaline to be released.
Caffeine C8H10N4O2: an alkaloid substance found in the coffee bean, the leaf and some tealeaf, yerba mate, cocoa bean.
Caffeine content: in a cup of coffee, about 1.5 grains.
Caffeeol, Caffeol, and Coffeol: A volatile aromatic conglomerate formed during roasting. Essence of coffee, coffee oils.
Caffetannic acid: Erroneously termed used to describe the acids of coffee. There is no such compound.
Cinnamon Roast: A light cinnamon colored roast, which develops after the first crack, with no oil development and usually nut like flavor.
Cappuccino: One-third espresso, one-third hot milk, one-third micro foam, dusted with chocolate. Name originates from the Italian Catholic Capuchin monks whose hoods represent a cappuccino’s cap of foam.
Caramelly: An aromatic created by a volatile of sugar compounds that produces a sensation reminiscent of syrup or caramelized sugar.
Cargo bags: Bags delivered to the boat, the shipper, the receiver, etc.
Cargo slacks: Bags of coffee that have become slack through leakage in transit.
Chaffy: The papery skin of green beans that is released during roasting
Chocolaty: An aromatic aftertaste that brings to mind the richness and sweetness of chocolate.
Cherry: Name applied to the ripe fruit of the coffee tree.
Chop: Before shipping, each invoice of coffee is made up into a number of divisions called chops. The bags in each division are marked with a particular chop number
Coffee Bean: Coffee is the seed of a cherry from a tree, which grows in a narrow subtropical belt around the world.
Coffee trees are an evergreen and grow to heights of 20 feet. To simplify harvesting, the trees are pruned to 8 to 10 feet.
Coffee cherries ripen at different times, so they are predominantly picked by hand. It takes approximately 2000 Arabica cherries to produce just one pound of roasted coffee. Since each cherry contains two beans, your one pound of coffee comes from 4000 beans.
The average coffee tree only produces one to two pounds of roasted coffee per year, and takes four to five years to produce its first crop.
The coffee plant first produces delicate clusters of white blossoms, resembling jasmine in shape and scent. These blossoms last only a few days. Small green coffee cherries then begin to appear and ripen to yellow…red…and finally almost black, within six to nine months.
Once the coffee cherries are picked, they are transported for processing. The fruit is then removed from the seed by one of two methods. The natural or dry process, where the cherries are dried in the sun or in dryers, are the fruit is then separated from the bean by processing them through a mechanical husker. Or, by a superior soaking method known as the wet process, which produces beans, which are referred to as washed coffees. The green beans are then dried, sized, sorted, graded, and selected, usually all be hand. The beans are then bagged and are ready for shipment to roasters around the world. Few products we use require so much in terms of human effort.
The tow commercially significant species of coffee beans are; coffee arabica and coffea robusta.
Arabica beans grow best at altitudes over 3000 feet. This species produces superior quality coffees, which process the greatest flavor and aromatic characteristics. They typically contain half the caffeine of robusta beans. Arabica production represents 80% of the world’s coffee trade, however, only 10% of this meets specialty coffee standards.
Robusta beans are usually grown at lower elevations. Robusta trees are easier to grow, produce higher yields, and are more disease resistant than arabica beans. Robusta beans usually possess a woody, astringent flavor. They are used when a lower price or additional is desired. A small percentage is typically added to many Italian espresso blends for the additional crema and complexity they contribute.
In addition to the species of the coffee, many other factors contribute to the overall quality of the green beans. Seed stock, plantation location, soil composition, altitude, weather conditions, fertilization, cultivation, harvesting, and processing methods, will all have a dramatic influence on the finished product.
Coffee’s History: Coffee was first discovered in Eastern Africa in an area we know today as Ethiopia. A popular legend refers to a goat herder by the name of Kaladi, who observed his goats acting unusually frisky after eating berries from a bush. Curious about the phenomena Kaladi tried eating the berries himself. He found that these berries gave him renewed energy. The news of this energy laden fruit quickly spread throughout the region.
Monks, hearing about this amazing fruit, dried the berries so that they could be transported to distant monasteries. They reconstituted these berries in water, ate the fruit, and drank the liquid to provide stimulation for a more awakened time for prayer.
Coffee berries were transported from Ethiopia to the Arabian Peninsula, and were first cultivated in what today is the country of Yemen.
From there, coffee traveled to Turkey, where coffee beans were roasted for the first time over open fires. The roasted beans were roasted beans were crushed and then boiled in water, creating a crude version of the beverage we enjoy today.
Coffee first arrived on the European continent by means of Venetian trade merchants. Once in Europe this new beverage fell under harsh criticism from the Catholic Church. Many felt the pope should ban coffee, calling it the drink of the devil. To their surprise, the pope, already a coffee drinker, blessed coffee declaring it a truly Christian beverage.
Coffee houses spread quickly across Europe becoming centers for intellectual exchange. Many great minds of Europe used this beverage, and forum, as a springboard to heightened thought and creativity.
In the 1700s, coffee found its way to the Americas by means of a French infantry captain who nurtured one small plant on its long journey across the Atlantic. This one plant, transported to the Caribbean Island of Martinique became the predecessor of over 19 million trees on the island within 50 years. It was from this humble beginning that the coffee plant found its way to the rest of the tropical regions of South and Central America.
Coffee was declared the national drink of the then colonized United States by the Continental Congress, in protest of the excessive tax on tea levied by the British crown.
Espresso, a recent innovation in the way to prepare coffee, obtained its origin in 1822, with the innovation of the first crude espresso machine in France. The Italian perfected this wonderful machine and were the first to manufacture it. Espresso has become such an integral part of Italian life and culture, which there are presently over 200,000 espresso bars in Italy.
Today, coffee is a giant global industry employing more than 20 million people. This commodity ranks second only to petroleum in terms of dollars traded worldwide. With over 400 billion cups consumed every year, coffee is the world’s most popular beverage. If you can imagine, in Brazil alone, over 5 million people are employed in the cultivation and harvesting of over 3 billion coffee plants.
Sales of premium specialty coffees in the United States have reached multi billion-dollar level, and are increasing significantly on an annual basis.
Coffee fruit: The berry, which contains the seed.
Coffee grade: One who grades coffee.
Coffeol: Essence of coffee, coffee oils.
Cold Water Method: a way of brewing coffee using cold water rather than hot water.
Colombia: Colombia produces 12% of the world’s coffee supply, and is second only to Brazil. The bulk of Colombian coffee is of high quality, and the country has done an excellent job marketing its product through the visage of Juan Valdez. Peasants grow the coffee at high altitudes, and it is processed using the wet method. Three mountain ranges, called cordilleras, trisect Colombia from north to south. The central and eastern cordilleras produce the best coffee. The most famous coffees in the central cordillera are Medellin, Armenia, and Manizales, named for cities where they are marketed. Medellin is the most famous, and has a heavy body, rich flavor, and balanced acidity. Armenia and Manizales have less body and acidity. In the US all three coffees may be marketed together as MAM. In the eastern cordillera, Bogota and Bucaramanga are the most famous coffees. Bogota is considered one of Colombia’s finest coffees, and contains less acid than Medellin, but is equally rich and flavorful. Bucaramanga has a low level of acid, but is rich in body and flavor.
Commercial Coffees: general refers to a brand name coffee which is pre-ground. Used by some countries to differentiate between those, which the locals can drink, and those exported.
Commissario: A name used to designate the commission merchant at coffee ports who bought from the planter, or sold the planter’s coffee on the commission, stored it in a warehouse, and sold it to an exporter.
Commission merchant: a person or firm receiving coffee on consignment for sale in a consuming country.
Complexity: a tasting term describing sensation shifts; resonance, depth.
Continuous Roaster: a roaster that roasts coffee continually as opposed to a batch roaster.
Contract: A Coffee Exchange contract is 32,500 lbs.
Country damage: An insurance term meaning damage occurring in the country of origin while in transit to the port of loading.
Costa Rica: Costa Rican coffee is grown primarily around the capital city of San Jose. The most famous of these coffees are San Marcos di Tarrazu, Tres Rios, Heredia, and Alajuela. These coffees are wet processed, and are full bodied and sweet, with a hearty richness and lively acidity. In Costa Rica coffee grown between 3300 and 3900 is called good hard bean. Costa Rican coffees are usually identified by the estate, cooperative, or facility where they are processed. One of the most famous of these estate coffees is La Minita.
Crema: The caramel colored, creamy layer on top of a shot of espresso. A good espresso should produce an at least 5mm layer of crema on top. The crema ‘caps’ the espresso retaining its flavor and aroma.
Cup testing: Judging the merits of a coffee by roasting, grinding, and brewing some of it. The brew is sipped.
Cupping: Used to describe the practice of coffee professionals assessing coffees by sipping the brewed product.
Doppio: Double strength espresso served in a demitasse cup.
Doser: A spring-loaded device on a grinder, which doses out the correct amount of coffee for a shot of espresso.
Dry Processing Coffee: Coffee cherries are laid to dry in the sun then passed through a huller to remove the dried pulp and parchment. Often used in poorer coffee growing regions where water is not available for wet processing. Greater change of beans becoming sour, crushed, or split. Also know as Natural Process.
Dark French Roast: a roast almost jet black in color, thin bodied and bittersweet tasting a bit like burnt charcoal.
Dark Roast: a roast, which beans are just turning black but still look brown.
Decaffeinated: coffee, which has had the caffeine removed or blocked in such a way that the caffeine will not leave the bean during brewing.
Delivered: The seller undertakes to guarantee the safe carriage at his expense to the point fixed in the contract, and reweighed at destination.
Demitasse: A small cup used for serving espresso, French for ‘half cup’
Demitasse: A half size cup for espresso.
Dominican Republic: Coffees from these countries are grown at moderate altitudes and are full-bodied with moderate acidity and uncomplicated flavors. These wet-processed coffees are best suited for dark-roasted espresso blends. Cibao, Bani, Ocoa, and Barahona are the four main market names for coffees from the Dominican Republic.
Drip Method: A brewing method that drips hot water over the bed of coffee grounds.
Dry fermenting: When washed, coffee is fermented without water.
Dry Processed Coffee: a process in which no water is used to remove the husk from the fruit after the coffee berries have been dried. Generally scraping the berry and considered inferior to the washed or fermented process.
Dry roast: A roasting process in which no water is used to check the roast. The operator depends entirely upon his cooling apparatus for quick cooling.
Earthy: An earthy or musty flavor.
Earthiness: A tasting term describing coffee, which taste a little off and a bit like dirt.
Ecuador: Produces a large amount of coffee, but it is rarely seen in the United States. These coffees are undistinguished, with light to medium body and mild acidity.
En oro: Term for washed coffee when the parchment and silver skin have been removed. Clean coffee.
En parche: Term used for coffee in the parchment.
Espresso: a method to brew coffee, which forces the water into the grind by pressure.
Espresso Breve: An espresso with light cream
Espresso can Panna: An espresso topped with whipped cream.
Estate: A farm where a specific variety of bean is grown also refers to the government controlled coffee farms of certain countries.
Estate Grown: Coffee grown on large farms as opposed to small peasant plots, usually old family owned plantations.
Ethiopia: Ethiopia is the birthplace of the arabica tree, and wild berries are still harvested by tribe’s people in its mountains. In Eastern Ethiopia, coffee trees are grown between 5000 and 6000 feet on small peasant plots and farms. These coffees may be called longberry Harrar (large bean), shortberry Harrar (smaller bean), or Mocha Harrar (peaberry or single bean). They are all cultivated simply, processed by the traditional dry method and are no doubt organic. Ethiopian Harrar is characterized by winy and blueberry undertones, with good body and high acid.
Eastern Ethiopia: produces a washed coffee called Ghimbi or Gimbi, that has the winy undertones of Harrar but can be richer more balanced, and have heavier body and longer finish.
El Salvador: The flavor of Salvadorian coffee is mild, with good balance, medium body, sharp acidity and a hint of sweetness. The best grade of Salvadorian coffee is called strictly high grown. El Salvador produces an excellent certified organic coffee under the brand name of Pipil. All coffees are produce using the wet process.
Southern Ethiopia: produces washed coffees with fruity acidity and intense aromas. These coffees are known by the names of the districts in which they are produced, such as Sidamo, or by terms like Ethiopian Francies or Ethiopian Estate Grown. The most famous of these coffees is Yirgacheffe, which has an unparalleled fruity aroma, light and elegant body, and almost menthol taste. Many US consumers seek this coffee out.
European Preparation: Removing imperfections by hand.
Excelso: A grade of coffee, which includes size, quality, and imperfections.
Ex dock: Contracts requiring the buyer to take delivery from the pier.
Ex ship: Coffee, which is sold before arrival with the understanding that the buyer will remove it immediately after unloading on the dock.
Extra: second best grade of coffee.
Ex warehouse: Coffee, which is warehoused which are placed at the disposal of the buyer.
FAQ: Fair average quality.
Fazenda: A coffee plantation.
Farendero: A proprietor of a fazenda.
Fermenting: A process where yeasts eat the sugars in a substance.
Filtered Method: Coffee brewed with a filter where the coffee is held separate from the sitting water.
Finish: the aftertaste or the lingering taste of the coffee.
Flat White: One-shot espresso, topped with hot milk and a fine layer of microfoam.
Flavor: Flavor is the overall perception of the coffee in your mouth. Acidity, aroma, and body are all components of flavor. It is the balance and homogenization of these senses that create your overall perception of flavor. The following are typical flavor characteristics:
General Flavor Characteristics:
Typical Specific Desirable Flavor Characteristics:
Typical Specific Undesirable Flavor Characteristics
Flip Drip: A device which water is heated on the bottom of the brewer, when boiling, the device is flipped over and the water drips down through the coffee, which was loaded in the middle of the brewer.
Fluid Bed Roaster: A roaster, which cooks the bean by holding them up with a blast of hot air.
French Press: A device, which brews coffee by allowing the grinds to sit in the water, when finished, a press pushes the grounds to the bottom.
French Roast: A roast black in color tasting bittersweet but not like burnt charcoal.
Froth: The dense, creamy layer that forms on top of milk after it has been properly heated and aerated using hot steam.
Fruity: The flavor or aroma of coffee that is reminiscent of fruits or berries, can be associated with the sweet sensations within a coffee.
Finca: A coffee plantation.
Finquero: A proprietor of a finca.
Flat bean: A large bean without the curly characteristic generally void of acid.
FOB: Free on board. The seller agrees to place the product safely on board the carrier designated by the purchaser. Generally describes the time title is transferred.
Forwarder: An agent who takes charge of a coffee shipment for interior clients and directs transportation.
Full City Roast: When coffee is roasted longer than enough to bring the oil to the surface. Darker roast than the American normal roast with some oil patches. Also known as French Roast.
Futures: Coffee sold for delivery some time in the future.
Gamey, Gaminess: Other terms, which mean off in taste. Doesn’t taste right but can explain what it is.
General Average: An insurance term meaning a loss arising from a voluntary and successful sacrifice or expenses incurred under extraordinary circumstance for the purpose of averting a threatening danger to the common safety.
GHB: Good hard bean.
Glazing: Coating the bean to preserve the natural flavor.
Good Hard Bean: a grade of coffee grown at altitudes above 3000 feet. Term varies depending on the country where the bean is growing.
Grade: The measure of quality.
Grading: Classification of beans according to size and shape. The beans are sorted using sieves into the following categories: AA, plantation A, Screen A 18/20, AB, screen 16, Brokens, E, Elephants, Peaberry.
Green: A result of under roasting or too early harvesting, giving the coffee a sharp, herbaceous taste.
Green Coffee: Unroasted coffee beans.
Group: The fixture protruding from the front of an espresso machine, which makes more than one cup at a time.
Groundy: An earthy taste. The taste of dirt.
Guatemala: Some of the world’s greatest coffee is produced in the central Highlands of Guatemala. The most famous regional marketing names are: Antigua, Coban, and Huehuetenango. High quality Guatemalan coffees are produced using the wet-process and are of high acidity and medium body, with smoky, spicy, and chocolate flavors. Guatemalan coffee is often marketed by grade, with the highest grade being strictly hard bean, which indicates coffee grown at 4500 feet or above. A secondary grade is hard bean, designated coffees grown between 4000 and 4500 feet.
Hacienda: Farm or ranch.
Hard: Coffee with a less mild taste. Generally a term for “not as good”
Hard bean: Coffee that is grown above 3000 feet. Lower temperatures cause the beans to mature slower than normal and produce a bean that is denser and less porous. They are more desirable than softer beans.
Harsh: a term used to describe a certain coffee flavor.
Hawaii: Hawaiian coffee is grown primarily on the islands of Hawaii and Kauai, with the coffees of the Kona region of the island of Hawaii being the most highly prized. Kona possesses the perfect environment for growing arabicas. The best estates grow beautiful, large, flat beans, which produce a medium-bodied brew, with buttery, spicy characteristics. Consumers should beware that many coffees being sold as Kona blends may contain only 10% Hawaiian coffee, typically blended with Latin American coffees. Kona coffees demand a premium price and the flavor characteristics of many lower priced Latin American coffees are considered superior.
HB: Hard Bean
Hectare: A metric unit of land equaling 2.471 acres
HG: High Grown.
HGC: High Grown Central.
Hidey coffee, hidy coffee: Coffee which smells and tastes like hides.
High Grown: Coffee that is grown at altitudes of 2000 to 4000 feet above sea level.
Honduras: Honduran coffee is wet-processed and mainly used as a cheap blending coffee. Some excellent coffees are grown here, but they are often blended with inferior beans before they are exported and are difficult to find.
Hulling: The last step in the preparation of washed coffee.
Husking: Cleaning the dried cherry.
Importer: A person or firm that buys coffee from a producing country and brings it into a non-producing country.
In store: contracts requiring the seller to store the coffee, clean it, and make it ready for delivery.
India: Coffees produced in India have more in common with Indonesian coffees than with coffees from Africa or the Arabian Peninsula. Good Indian coffees are grown in the states of Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamilnadu. In good years these coffees can contain acidity typical of Guatemalan coffee, and the full body of a good Javanese coffee. In addition, these coffees incorporate the unique spicy flavors of nutmeg, clove, cardamom, and pepper.
India also produces monsoon coffees, in which the green beans have been exposed to the monsoon winds blowing through open warehouses during India’s rainy season this process reduces acidity and enhances sweetness, making them similar to Indonesian aged coffees.
Invisible supply: The unknown stocks of coffee, including those held by roasters.
Invoice: One of more chops of coffee billed as one sale.
Italian Roast: A darker roast than American.
Jamaica: Jamaica is the home of the Jamaican Blue Mountain, one of the world’s most controversial coffees. Once a superb coffee characterized by a nutty aroma, bright acidity, and a unique beef-bouillon like flavor, recent over production, lack of attention to quality and profiteering have led to a mediocre, over priced product. Some confusion exists about where the boundaries for growing this coffee actually lie, and often coffees or lesser quality are packaged under its name. Jamaican High Mountains is a term that applies to coffees of lesser quality that are grown at a lower altitude that Jamaican Blue Mountain. Both coffees are produced using the wet-process.
Java: Early Dutch explores brought arabica trees to Java, which became the world’s leading producer of coffee until rust wiped out the industry. The acreage was replanted with disease-resistant and less desirable robusta stock. With the support of the Indonesian government, arabica is once again being grown on some of the original Dutch estates. Estate Java is a wet-processed coffee that is more acidic, lighter than body and quicker to finis than other coffees in the region. Smoke and spice flavors often associated with this coffee’s acidity.
Judge Java: The best coffees you could ask for! www.judgejava.com
Joe: American slang for a cup of coffee
Kenya: Kenya works diligently to assure quality in all beans that are exported. The coffee is cultivated on small farms, and the growers are rewarded, with high prices for quality beans. The main growing region in Kenya extends south of 17000-foot Mt. Kenya to near the capital of Nairobi. Kenyan coffee is wet-processed and sold by the size of the bean, with AA signifying the largest beans, followed by A and B. The best Kenyan coffee, called Estate Kenya, can cost twice as much as regular AA’s, but is worth the price. The tremendous body, astounding winy acidity and black-current flavor and aroma make Estate Kenya one of the finest coffees in the world.
Kilogram: 2.2046 pounds.
Last bag notice: A term used by cargo when the last bags are being unloaded. A term used by marketers defining coffee, which has bees sold before arrival, when notice is given by cargo, the importer can transfer ownership of the coffee.
Lavando Fino: Best grade of Venezuelan coffee.
Latte: A shot of espresso topped with hot milk and a 1 cm layer of micro froth, and served in a latte glass.
Latte Mach: Two thirds of a glass of hot milk, with a 1 cm layer of micro froth, topped with a shot of espresso, producing a layered effect served in a latte glass.
Laterals: Side branches, often horizontal.
Limu: A low acid washed coffee, typically from Ethiopia.
LGC: Low Grown Central.
Long Black: Coffee cup filled with two thirds hot water and topped with single or double shot of espresso
Long Macchiato: Two shots of espresso in a latte glass with a dash of cold milk poured down the side to from a layer and a mark of froth on the top.
Longberry harrar: A grade of coffee from Ethiopia. The beans are larger than shortberries.
Make sound: damaged coffee, which has been cleaned.
Mexico: Mexico produces large quantities of unremarkable coffee that is often used for dark roasts and blending. The state of Vera Cruz produces many of these average coffees in its low laying regions, but in its mountains near the city of Coatepec an excellent coffee called Altura Coatepec is produced. These high grown or alutra, coffees are light bodied, nutty with a chocolate tang and acidic snap. Alutra Orizaba and Altura Huatusco are other fine coffees produced in Vera Cruz. The state of Oazaca in the central mountains also produces some good coffees, referred to as either Oaxaca or Oaxaca Pluma. Chiapas, near the Guatemalan border, produces coffee under the market name Tapachula, and is also gaining a reputation for its above average organic coffees. Coffees are produced using the wet process.
MAM: An acronym for Medelin, Armenia, and Manizales Colombian coffees which are typically sold together in one contract.
Maragogip: An extremely large porous bean.
Mature Coffee: Generally, a term for coffee still in its parchment waiting for an order which is still older than one generation of crop.
Mazagran: The French name for a drink composed of cold coffee and seltzer water.
Mbuni: Unwashed poor quality coffee.
Mellow: A taste sensation created as the salts in the coffee combine with the sugars to increase the overall sweetness. A smooth, well balanced coffee with low to medium acidity.
MC: Methylene Chloride; generally used decaffeinated coffee.
Microwave Brewers: Brewers, which work in a microwave oven.
Middle Eastern Coffee: Another term for Turkish coffee, coffee ground to a fine powder, served grounds and all.
Mild coffees: Coffees free of harsh flavor.
Mocha: A small irregular bean, in color olive green. Has a unique acid character. Generally shipped from Mocha Yemen. Can also be the name of coffee beverage where coffee is mixed with chocolate.
Mocha Latte: One shot of espresso and one shot of chocolate syrup topped with hot milk and 1 cm later of micro froth, dusted with chocolate powder, served in a latte glass.
Monsooned Coffee: Indian green beans that are deliberately exposed to humid monsoon winds in open warehouses for six months to cause the beans to swell and reduce acidity, Monsoon Malabar is the best example of this.
Musty: A flavor as a result of overheating or lack of proper drying.
New Crop: freshly picked and processed coffee crop.
New Guinea: Papua New Guinea, which occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea, is usually where coffee is labeled New Guinea is grown. Coffee is cultivated by peasants on small plantations in the mountain highlands, and processed using the wet-process. Two of New Guinea’s most famous coffees are Sirgri and Arona. These coffees are less acidic and aromatic than the best coffees of Sulawesi and less full bodied than the best Sumatrans, but nonetheless they are well balanced with a fruity aroma and earthy body.
Nicaragua: The best-known Nicaraguan coffees are produced by the wet process in the Jinotega and Matagalpa regions are light to medium bodied and fairly acidic. Nicaraguan coffee trees produce large beans that contain salty acidity and heavy body when brewed.
No arrival: didn’t arrive as per contract.
No sale: didn’t arrive or was not as contracted for so the sale is incomplete.
Notice: Announcement of delivery.
Nutty: Having the aroma or flavor of roasted nuts, typically associated with poor quality beans.
Old Crop: Any crop which has been sitting around a long time. Generally, any crop which is older than one crop. Depending on handling, this may not be aged or mature crop.
Open Pot: One of the oldest methods, leave the coffee in an open pot where the grind separates from the brew by settling or straining.
Panama: Coffee produced in Panama is sweet, bright, and balanced, and similar to coffee from the Tres Rios region of Costa Rica. This wet-processed coffee is often used for blending, but is excellent served as a breakfast brew.
Parchment: The endocarp of the coffee fruit. It lies between the fleshy part and the silver skin. Remove during hulling process.
Particular average: An insurance term meaning a partial loss or damage to ship, cargo, or any of them resulting directly from the perils of the voyage and of purely accidental nature.
PC: Past crop: older than one generation but still in parchment during storage.
Peaberry: A grade of coffee where the coffee cherry has formed one small round bean whereas it would normally have produced two separate beans. Has quite a distinctive taste to other beans with a brighter point.
Portafilter: The cup shaped filter in the handle of the cappuccino machine where the coffee grounds are placed.
Percolation: Any method of brewing where the hot water has been dried after pulping fermenting and washing.
Peru: The coffee regions are well suited to shade farming techniques and many growers follow sustainable agriculture practices, with widespread adherence to “organic” fertilization and weed control methods. Approximately 50% of the “washed” coffee exports are labeled from the Chanchamayo region. This central highland area is famous for high quality coffee. An added benefit is that the peak harvest is usually a few months apart from the peak harvest availability of washed Central American coffees. Many roasters will buy Peru coffees to use in blends, since the cup profile is similar to the best Central American coffees.
The best Peru coffees are mellow-bodied with lightly floral acidity and a crisply clean finish.
Pile: coffee dried and hulled by the dry process.
Plantation coffee: Pergamino or parchment coffee.
Points: Fluctuations of prices on the commodities market. A term used for grading coffee.
Primo Lavado: A grade of coffee, which includes most of the fine coffees of Mexico. Generally a contract term, which means the coffee is of good grade but not really specific.
Primary market: The market in the country of production.
Pulping: The first step after picking. Removing the outer skin of the berry.
PW: Prime Washed.
Pyrolysis: chemical breakdown during roasting of fats and carbohydrates into oils which provide the flavor and aroma.
Quad: A drink made from four shots of espresso.
Quakers: Unripe or underdeveloped coffee beans.
Red Eye: A shot of espresso in coffee cup topped with drip coffee.
Reis: Brazilian money.
Rich, Richness: A taste term of good body and/or acidity.
Rio, Rio Flavor: A heavy and harsh taste characteristic of coffees grown in the Rio district of Brazil.
Risteretto: Meaning restricted, one shot espresso shot stopped halfway, served in demitasse cup.
Robusta: Predominantly used for instant coffee and Italian blends of espresso. Robusta bushes grow in larger altitudes and produce more beans. The bean is more bitter and higher in caffeine than Arabica beans.
Rubbery Coffee: Taste like rubber.
SC: Standard Central.
SHB: Strictly Hard Bean
SHG: Strictly Hard Growth
SHGC: Strictly Hard Grown Central
Ship fillings: Coffee swept overboard or fell off the pier.
Ship samples: Samples, which precede the actual shipment.
Ship sweepings: All loose coffee swept up from the floor or piers, ship holds, or warehouse which are not suitable for consumption.
Single origin: coffee that comes form a single area or region
Shipper’s slacks: Bags of coffee originally delivered by the shipper to the steamer in a slack filled condition. Not a completely filled bag.
Short Black: See Espresso
Short Macchiato: One shot of espresso with a dash of cold milk poured down the inside of an espresso glass to form a layer and a mark of froth on top.
Sourness: Not to be mistaken for acidity, sourness is a sharp taste that occurs when beans are under ripe or under roasted.
Stale: Coffee that has been exposed to oxygen too long giving it a flat, cardboard taste
Silver skin: A thin, papery covering on the coffee bean surface.
Sizing: Grading the size of the coffee bean surface.
Skimming: That part of the bag which has been damaged by moisture. The damaged portion being skimmed off. Grades are “gs” for good skimmings, “ms” for not so good skimmings, and “ps” for poor skimmings.
Slack: Bags which have become torn or otherwise not full.
Soft Bean: Beans that are grown of altitudes of less than 4000 feet above sea level. The beans mature faster causing the beans to become more porous than higher grown beans. Generally, a more porous or less dense bean.
Sound coffee: Coffee in marketable condition.
Source: The place of origin.
Specialty Coffee: A term to differentiate between large commercial roasters and coffees which are more individual in marketing. Small scale roasters or coffee sold by the grower.
Spills, spillings: All such coffee retrieved with a clean shovel, scooped or otherwise suitable appliance from piles of coffee spilled in the ships holds, or on the pier.
Spore: The seed of fungi, ferns, mosses, and other flowerless plants.
Spot: The spot market is where the purchaser actually buys the beans. As apposed to the future’s market where the sale of coffee is at sometime in the future.
Standard: A fixed quality.
Steamer sweat: An insurance term meaning damage to coffee from sweat generated by the heat in the hold of a vessel.
Steam Wand: A pipe on most espresso machines which provide steam for the milk frothing operation
Straight Coffee: Unblended coffee from a single country, region, or crop.
Style: A term designated to the appearance of the whole coffee bean.
Sulawesi or Celebes: Once known as Celebes, the island of Sulawesi in the Indonesian archipelago produces some of the world’s finest coffee. Celebes Toraja, grown in the mountainous area near the center of the island, is one of the most famous. Coffees from Sulawesi are processed using the dry method and posses an intriguing combination of sweetness and earthiness. They are low in acidity with a deep body resembling maple syrup. These coffees are more expensive than Sumatran coffees because of small yields and the fierce demand for this coffee in Japan.
Sumatra: Two of the world’s best and more famous coffees come from Sumatra;
Mandheling and Ankola. Both are dry-processed coffees grown in west-central Sumarta near the port of Pandang at altitudes of 2500 to 5000 feet. Mandheling is known for its herbal aroma, full body, low acidity and rich, smooth flavor. Though these coffees are difficult to fine, they remain moderate in price.
Supremo: The highest grade of coffee
Sweated coffee: Green coffee which has been submitted to a steaming process to give the beans a brown appearance. It is considered an adulteration.
Sweet: Perceived primarily on the tip of the tongue, used to describe coffee that is free from harsh flavors or defects.
Tanzania: Most Tanzanian coffees are grown near the border of Kenya on the slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro, and are sometimes referred to as Kilimanjaro, Moshi or Arusha. Other coffees are grown further south between Lake Tanganyika and Lake Nyasa, are usually called Mbeya, after one of the region’s cities or Pare, a market name. All coffees are wet-processed and graded by bean size, with the highest grade being AA, then A and B. Tanzanian coffees are characterized by a winy acidity, medium to full body, and deep richness. Peaberries are often separated from flat beans and sold at a premium for the enhanced flavor characteristics they possess.
Tamper: a device used to compress the ground coffee inside the filter basket of an espresso machine.
Tare: The weight of the bag in which the coffee is bagged.
Tasting Terms: When tasting coffee, you should try to discern whether the flavor, body, acidity and aroma of the coffee is pleasant, or unpleasant.
Thermal Block: A system of coils in a heating element used in espresso machines to heat water rather than a boiler or tank.
Tipping: Charring the little germ at the end of the coffee bean during the roasting process.
Turkish Coffee: Coffee ground to a fine powder, brewed and served with the grounds.
Type: A sample fairly representing the coffee to be shipped.
Unwashed coffee: Green coffee produced by the dry process.
Uganda: Most of the coffee produced in Uganda is robusta, and is used for instant coffee. Uganda does produce one fine Arabica called either Bugishu or Bugisu, and it is grown on the western slopes of Mt. Elgon on the Kenyan border. This coffee is winy in its acidity and similar to Kenyan coffee in flavor, though lighter in body.
UGQ: Usually good quality
Vector: An insect which carries a disease from one plant to another.
Venezuela: The highest quality Venezuelan coffee is grown in the western part of the country near the Colombian border. Maraciabos, as this coffee is known, refers to the port from which the coffee is shipped. The most famous Maraciabos are Cucuta, Merida, Trujillo and Tachira. Coffee is grown in the eastern mountains is called Caracas, after the capital city. Venezuelan coffees differ from the other coffees grown in the region in that they are much lower in acidity.
Vintage Coffee: a term used to state the coffee was aged on purpose.
Visible supply: The known coffee stocks in public warehouses, afloat and at ports of shipment.
Washed coffee: Coffee which has been pulped, fermented, and wasted, to remove the gummy substance.
Wet Processed: Removing the bean from the berry which the berry is still moist.
Winy: A smooth full-bodied flavor with a hint of acidity and dryness associated with fine red wines. Often found in coffees that are grown above 4000 feet.
Wilting: The collapse of the leaf or stem of a plant due to the loss of water or disease.
Woody coffee: Green coffee which has deteriorated and lost its commercial value
Whole bean: Coffee which has been roasted but not ground.
Yemen: Arabian Mocha, grown in the northern mountains of Yemen, is one of the oldest and most traditional of the world’s coffees. It is also one of the finest. This coffee has been cultivated and processed in the same way for centuries, grown on mountain terraces and naturally dried. No chemicals are used in its production, and it is no doubt organic. Mocha is a balanced coffee with medium to full body, good acidity and chocolate undertones. Two famous market names for this coffee are Mattari and Sanani. Sanani mochas have a wild fruity acidity, while Mattari mochas are known for their full body and chocolate undertones.
Zimbabwe: Coffee is grown on medium-sized farms and is a less potent version of Kenyan coffee containing less acid and less body. The best come from the Chipinga region.